Antithyroid drugs

Table   Graphic     exposition period:

Congenital malformations
Adverse outcome OR 95%CII2k No. casesNo. exposedpublication biasROB
All congenital malformations (majors, minors, majors and minors, or unspecified)harm, strong evidence1.23 [1.09, 1.38]20%13 studies250,16520,031low NApptx
Major congenital malformationsnot enough data1.32 [0.95, 1.83]0%6 studies1973,475not evaluable NApptx
Urinary malformationsharm, weak evidence1.69 [1.10, 2.61]58%3 studies17,72915,800not evaluable NApptx
Genital anomaliesnot enough data1.17 [0.96, 1.41]0%3 studies25,84815,800not evaluable NApptx
Respiratory system anomaliesnot enough data1.16 [0.67, 2.01]71%3 studies16,03715,800not evaluable NApptx
Congenital heart defectsnot enough data1.33 [0.98, 1.79]71%3 studies77,71315,800not evaluable NApptx
Ear, face and neck anomaliesnot enough data1.50 [0.59, 3.82]0%2 studies9172,909not evaluable NApptx
Eye defectsnot enough data1.39 [0.70, 2.74]0%2 studies2,4932,909not evaluable NApptx
Limb defectsnot enough data1.08 [0.82, 1.41]61%3 studies74,80015,800not evaluable NApptx
Severe congenital heart defectnot enough data0.63 [0.04, 9.47]71%2 studies7392,757not evaluable NApptx
Abdominal wall defectsharm, weak evidence3.37 [1.63, 6.96]0%2 studies9332,909not evaluable NApptx
Ano-rectal atresia and stenosisnot enough data1.41 [0.29, 6.91]46%3 studies1,0573,208not evaluable NApptx
Cardiac septal defectssignal1.87 [1.14, 3.06]-1 study1,097not evaluable NApptx
Craniosynostosisnot enough data1.53 [0.43, 5.51]0%3 studies1,5372,684not evaluable NApptx
Digestive system anomaliesharm, weak evidence1.36 [1.08, 1.71]0%2 studies12,07013,337not evaluable NApptx
Nervous system anomaliesharm, weak evidence1.45 [1.06, 2.00]0%2 studies5,88413,337not evaluable NApptx
Omphalocelenot enough data3.02 [0.56, 16.34]66%3 studies1653,321not evaluable NApptx
Syndromes and chromosomal abnormalitiesnot enough data0.88 [0.34, 2.27]26%2 studies5,5572,909not evaluable NApptx
Aortic valve atresia/stenosisnot enough data1.75 [0.07, 44.39]71%2 studies4942,643not evaluable NApptx
Atresia of bile ductsnot enough data0.48 [0.06, 3.92]0%2 studies33,194not evaluable NApptx
Carbimazole embryopathynot enough data5.24 [0.80, 34.53]50%2 studies2,04813,095not evaluable NApptx
Choanal atresiaharm, weak evidence12.25 [5.02, 29.88]0%2 studies119139not evaluable NApptx
Congenital hydronephrosisnot enough data2.60 [0.62, 10.95]0%2 studies103,194not evaluable NApptx
Ear malformationsnot enough data17.48 [0.84, 364.79]-1 study2446not evaluable NApptx
Hypospadiasnot enough data1.85 [0.27, 12.64]0%2 studies43,194not evaluable NApptx
Oro-facial cleftsnot enough data1.22 [0.78, 1.90]0%2 studies3,46713,455not evaluable NApptx
Other congenital malformations (Q80-84)not enough data0.18 [0.01, 3.14]-1 study9446not evaluable NApptx
Pulmonary valve stenosisnot enough data1.72 [0.45, 6.64]0%2 studies1,519577not evaluable NApptx
Situs inversusharm, weak evidence16.80 [2.99, 94.32]35%2 studies272,757not evaluable NApptx
Ventricular septal defectnot enough data0.99 [0.51, 1.91]0%2 studies373,194not evaluable NApptx
Aplasia cutis congenitanot enough data10.90 [0.62, 190.95]-1 study72,630not evaluable NApptx
Atresia or stenosis of other parts of small intestinenot enough data2.17 [0.09, 53.42]-1 study12,630not evaluable NApptx
Atrial septal defectnot enough data1.45 [0.13, 16.00]-1 study32,630not evaluable NApptx
Brachydactylynot enough data2.17 [0.09, 53.42]-1 study12,630not evaluable NApptx
Chromosomal abnormalitiesno data1.16 [0.16, 8.29]-1 study4176not evaluable NApptx
Cleft lip with or without cleft palatenot enough data0.36 [0.03, 4.00]-1 study32,630not evaluable NApptx
Club foot / Talipes equinovarusnot enough data0.24 [0.01, 5.93]-1 study12,630not evaluable NApptx
Coarctation of aortasignal3.99 [1.02, 15.54]-1 study1,13714not evaluable NApptx
Congenital cataractnot enough data0.24 [0.01, 5.93]-1 study12,630not evaluable NApptx
Diaphragmatic hernianot enough data0.24 [0.01, 5.93]-1 study12,630not evaluable NApptx
Down syndrom / Trisomy 21not enough data1.81 [0.35, 9.36]-1 study72,630not evaluable NApptx
Eye, ear, face and neck malformationsnot enough data1.18 [0.89, 1.56]-1 study9,49312,891not evaluable NApptx
Gastroschisisno data2.43 [0.52, 11.40]-1 study1,39413not evaluable NApptx
Intestinal malrotationnot enough data0.24 [0.03, 2.32]-1 study42,630not evaluable NApptx
Multicystic renal dysplasianot enough data0.72 [0.05, 11.59]-1 study22,630not evaluable NApptx
Oesophageal atresia with or without tracheo-oesophageal fistulanot enough data3.63 [0.17, 75.58]-1 study22,630not evaluable NApptx
Other congenital malformations (Q80 to Q99)not enough data1.25 [0.96, 1.62]-1 study10,07912,891not evaluable NApptx
Patent ductus arteriousnot enough data7.99 [0.44, 144.53]-1 study52,630not evaluable NApptx
Polydactylynot enough data2.53 [0.10, 62.27]-1 study1564not evaluable NApptx
Pulmonary artery stenosisnot enough data0.24 [0.01, 5.93]-1 study12,630not evaluable NApptx
Skeletal dysplasianot enough data0.24 [0.01, 5.93]-1 study12,630not evaluable NApptx
Spina bifidanot enough data3.63 [0.17, 75.58]-1 study22,630not evaluable NApptx
Sturge-Weber syndromenot enough data2.17 [0.09, 53.42]-1 study12,630not evaluable NApptx
Syndactylynot enough data2.18 [0.23, 20.93]-1 study42,630not evaluable NApptx
Tetralogy of Fallotnot enough data3.63 [0.17, 75.58]-1 study22,630not evaluable NApptx
Transposition of the great vesselsnot enough data0.24 [0.01, 5.93]-1 study12,630not evaluable NApptx

Growth parameters and prematurity
Adverse outcome OR 95%CII2k No. casesNo. exposedpublication biasROB
Preterm (< 37 weeks)no evidence of harm0.95 [0.78, 1.16]3%11 studies6392,427low NApptx
Low birth weight (< 2500g)not enough data1.34 [0.78, 2.32]55%4 studies3071,324not evaluable NApptx
Small for gestational age (weight)not enough data1.06 [0.86, 1.30]0%3 studies5601,400not evaluable NApptx
Large for gestational age (weight)not enough data0.96 [0.60, 1.55]-1 study80586not evaluable NApptx
Very preterm (28 to 32 weeks)no data2.01 [0.08, 51.30]-1 study141not evaluable NApptx
Small for gestational age (length)no data--0 studypptx
Small head circumference for gestational ageno data--0 studypptx

Maternal consequences
Adverse outcome OR 95%CII2k No. casesNo. exposedpublication biasROB
Caesareanno data2.26 [0.69, 7.45]-1 study2543not evaluable NApptx
Maternal liver disorder / failure during pregnancyno data--0 studypptx
Preeclampsianot enough data1.13 [0.13, 10.01]0%2 studies4310not evaluable NApptx
Gestational diabeteno data0.38 [0.02, 9.46]-1 study1176not evaluable NApptx

Neonatal disorders
Adverse outcome OR 95%CII2k No. casesNo. exposedpublication biasROB
Goiterno data2.03 [0.18, 23.21]57%3 studies27170not evaluable NApptx
Hypothyroidism (fetal/neonatal)not enough data2.54 [0.51, 12.61]6%4 studies11346not evaluable NApptx
Hyperthyroidism / Thyrotoxicosis (fetal/neonatal)no data3.27 [0.40, 26.43]40%3 studies15204not evaluable NApptx
Hearing loss / Auditory deficitnot enough data0.56 [0.08, 3.80]5%2 studies53,194not evaluable NApptx
Neonatal hyperthyrotropinemiasignal3.02 [1.04, 8.78]-1 study18111not evaluable NApptx
Neonatal medical carenot enough data1.23 [0.92, 1.65]-1 study219586not evaluable NApptx
Neonatal deathno data--0 studypptx
Neonatal disorders (as a whole)no data1.74 [0.31, 9.67]-1 study741not evaluable NApptx

Intrauterine deaths
Adverse outcome OR 95%CII2k No. casesNo. exposedpublication biasROB
Early intrauterine death (< 22 weeks)not enough data1.89 [0.68, 5.24]85%4 studies5803,399not evaluable NApptx
Intrauterine deaths (as a whole)not enough data1.41 [0.88, 2.25]0%5 studies86435not evaluable NApptx
Elective termination of pregnancyharm, weak evidence1.97 [1.17, 3.33]0%3 studies993,295not evaluable NApptx
Late intrauterine deaths (> 22 weeks)no data0.20 [0.01, 6.47]74%2 studies9167not evaluable NApptx
Perinatal deathnot enough data0.76 [0.36, 1.56]0%3 studies293,350not evaluable NApptx
Ectopic pregnancyno data--0 studypptx

Neuro-developmental disorders
Adverse outcome OR 95%CII2k No. casesNo. exposedpublication biasROB
Neuro-developmental disorders (as a whole)signal5.34 [2.17, 13.10]-1 study69220not evaluable NApptx

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